Ototoxicity is the property of being toxic to the ear, specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and occasionally the vestibular system; it is commonly caused by medication.

Deaf blindness is a combination of vision and hearing loss that impairs a person's ability to communicate, access information, and navigate. Deaf blindness is more than just being deaf and unable to see or being blind and unable to hear. The combined effects of the two impairments are stronger. A person of any age can have a vision or hearing impairment. It could have been from birth or as a result of deterioration later in life. However, the majority of deaf blind people have some vision and hearing.

According to the American Academy of Audiology, one in every three people over the age of 65 suffers from hearing loss. Hearing loss is common in people over the age of 60. This figure rises to one in every two people over the age of 85. Presbycusis is another term for age-related hearing loss. Although age-related hearing loss is not a life-threatening condition, if left untreated, it can have a significant impact on your quality of life.

Hyperacusis is a medical condition characterised by an increased sensitivity to specific frequency and volume ranges of sound, as well as a decreased tolerance to normal environmental sound. A person suffering from severe hyperacusis has difficulty tolerating everyday sounds, some of which may be unpleasant or painful to that person but not to others. It can be acquired as a result of damage to the hearing apparatus or the inner ear. The efferent portion of the auditory nerve has been affected; efferent fibres originate in the brain and serve to regulate sounds. According to this theory, the auditory nerve's efferent fibres are selectively damaged while the hair cells that allow for pure tonal hearing in an audiometric evaluation remain intact.

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